Back in 2015, Google announced they can now crawl locally better and said again not long ago that they are able to crawl locally if necessary. But do they do that that often? Probably not.
John Mueller of Google said they find that crawling locally, at least in most cases, "didn't lead to anything really useful." He said this at the 10:42 mark into the video:
We've looked into crawling from other countries in the past but that didn't lead to anything really useful.
For the most part, except for some country that traditionally block us users. So for example in Korea I think it was a problem South Korea that a lot of sites blocked US users from accessing their pages. And if US users are blocked and Googlebot can't index the content at all. So we try to crawl locally in places like that.
But within Europe we haven't noticed that we have any additional value by crawling from different countries.
Here is the video embed:
So make sure your content is crawlable from the US, it is pretty important.
Forum discussion at YouTube.